Indicators

Total greenhouse gas emissions (excluding land-use change and forestry) (mtCO₂e)

DriversEnvironment and climate change
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Annual population growth (%)

DriversPopulation growth and migration
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Gender inequality index

DriversSocio-cultural Context
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Percent urban population of total population (%)

DriversUrbanization
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Cost of nutrient adequacy in local currency units

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
0.6
Local currency
2011

Dietary energy in food supply (kcal/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Share of dietary energy from cereals, roots, and tubers (%)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of eggs (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of fish (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of fruit (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of meat (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of pulses (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of vegetables (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Retail value of packaged food sales per capita

Food EnvironmentsProduct properties
47.4
USD/capita
2017

Retail value of ultra-processed food sales per capita

Food EnvironmentsProduct properties
32.5
USD/capita
2017

Average crop species richness

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
14.5
crops per unit of land
2015

Cereal yield (kg/ha)

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
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Share of employment in agriculture (%)

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
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Vegetable yield (mt per ha)

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
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Cereal losses (%)

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Fruit losses (%)

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Pulse losses (%)

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Vegetable losses (%)

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Agricultural land change during the last 10 years

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
-30.5
1000 ha yr-1
2008–2018

Average proportion of natural vegetation embedded in agricultural lands

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
15
%
2015

Average threats soil biodiversity

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
2.3
1 = low risk, 8 = highest risk
2010

Per capita biodiversity impact of food consumption

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
2,731
sp.yr * 10^12/person
2010

Per capita eutrophication of food consumption

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
10,675
g PO43-eq/capita
2010

Per capita greenhouse gas emissions of food consumption

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
2,988
kg CO2eq./person
2010

Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Per capita greenhouse gas emissions of food consumption as a likely challenge area for Cuba. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Research and develop alternative proteins sources and share the research in the public domain.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of alternative micronutrient-rich protein sources and reduce appeal of red meat to high red-meat consumers.

Per capita water use linked to food consumption

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
327
litre/person
2010

Total ecological footprint of consumption per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
1.8
global ha/capita
2019

Total ecological footprint of production per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
1.2
global ha/capita
2019

Prevalence of undernourishment (%)

OutcomesFood security
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Infants and children (6-23 months): Minimum diet diversity (%)

OutcomesInfant and young child feeding practices
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Infants and children (6-23 months): Minimum meal frequency (%)

OutcomesInfant and young child feeding practices
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Adult diabetes prevalence (%)

OutcomesNoncommunicable diseases
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Adult raised blood pressure (systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure >= 140/90 mmHg) (%)

OutcomesNoncommunicable diseases
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Adult obesity (BMI >= 30) (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Adult obesity (BMI >= 30) as a likely challenge area for Cuba. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Reformulate processed food to reduce fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Reduce availability of fats, sugars and salt in foods already available to all populations.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Set mandatory limits on trans fats, sugar, salt/sodium and/or saturated fat in packaged foods.
Impact
Reduce availability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Require nutrition labelling on packages/menus to indicate if foods are high in calories, fats, sugars and/or salt and/or in positive nutrients.
Impact
Reduce appeal and availability of foods high in fat, sugar and salt and increases appeal of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.

Anemia in women 15-49 years (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Overweight in children under 5 years

OutcomesNutritional status
10
%
2019

Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Overweight in children under 5 years as a likely challenge area for Cuba. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Reformulate processed food to reduce fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Reduce availability of fats, sugars and salt in foods already available to all populations.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Implement comprehensive school food programmes, incorporating food and meals, nutrition standards, nutrition education, school gardens, food personnel training, food skills and literacy.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and access of nutritious foods and reduce access to foods high in fats, sugars and salt to school-aged children.
Action
Set mandatory limits on trans fats, sugar, salt/sodium and/or saturated fat in packaged foods.
Impact
Reduce availability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Require nutrition labelling on packages/menus to indicate if foods are high in calories, fats, sugars and/or salt and/or in positive nutrients.
Impact
Reduce appeal and availability of foods high in fat, sugar and salt and increases appeal of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.

Stunting in children under 5 years (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Wasting in children under 5 years (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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All Suggested Policies and Actions

We’ve identified the following policies and actions that might address issues with the food system of Cuba.

Action
Research and develop alternative proteins sources and share the research in the public domain.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of alternative micronutrient-rich protein sources and reduce appeal of red meat to high red-meat consumers.
Action
Reformulate processed food to reduce fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Reduce availability of fats, sugars and salt in foods already available to all populations.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Set mandatory limits on trans fats, sugar, salt/sodium and/or saturated fat in packaged foods.
Impact
Reduce availability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Require nutrition labelling on packages/menus to indicate if foods are high in calories, fats, sugars and/or salt and/or in positive nutrients.
Impact
Reduce appeal and availability of foods high in fat, sugar and salt and increases appeal of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.
Action
Implement comprehensive school food programmes, incorporating food and meals, nutrition standards, nutrition education, school gardens, food personnel training, food skills and literacy.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and access of nutritious foods and reduce access to foods high in fats, sugars and salt to school-aged children.