Unlikely Challenge Area
Potential Challenge Area
Likely Challenge Area
Missing Data

Indicators

Total greenhouse gas emissions (excluding land-use change and forestry) (mtCO₂e)

DriversEnvironment and climate change
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Annual population growth (%)

DriversPopulation growth and migration
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Gender inequality index

DriversSocio-cultural Context
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Percent urban population of total population (%)

DriversUrbanization
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Affordability of a healthy diet: Ratio of cost to food expenditures

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
0.5
Ratio
2017

Cost of a healthy diet (PPP dollar/person/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
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Cost of an energy sufficient diet

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
0.8
2017 PPP dollar/person/day
2017

Cost of legumes, nuts, and seeds relative to the starchy staples in a least-cost healthy diet

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
0.6
Ratio
2017

Cost of nutrient adequacy as a percent of household food expenditure

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
38
%
2011

Cost of nutrient adequacy in local currency units

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
1.8
Local currency
2011

Retail value of packaged food sales per capita

Food EnvironmentsProduct properties
421.3
USD/capita
2017

Retail value of ultra-processed food sales per capita

Food EnvironmentsProduct properties
310.1
USD/capita
2017

Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Retail value of ultra-processed food sales per capita as a likely challenge area for Singapore. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.

Modern grocery retailers per 100,000 population

Food EnvironmentsVendor properties
17.8
retailers per 100,000 population
2017

Supermarkets per 100,000 population

Food EnvironmentsVendor properties
5.6
per 100,000 population
2017

Average crop species richness

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
4.7
crops per unit of land
2015

Share of employment in agriculture (%)

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
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Vegetable yield (mt per ha)

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
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Agricultural infrastructure index

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Final consumption expenditure per capita (constant 2017 international dollars/capita)

Individual FactorsEconomic
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Agricultural land change during the last 10 years

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
-0
1000 ha yr-1
2008–2018

Average proportion of natural vegetation embedded in agricultural lands

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
12
%
2015

Average threats soil biodiversity

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
1.8
1 = low risk, 8 = highest risk
2010

Total ecological footprint of consumption per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
5.9
global ha/capita
2019

Total ecological footprint of production per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
3.2
global ha/capita
2019

Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity (%)

OutcomesFood security
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Adult diabetes prevalence (%)

OutcomesNoncommunicable diseases
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Adult raised blood pressure (systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure >= 140/90 mmHg) (%)

OutcomesNoncommunicable diseases
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Adult obesity (BMI >= 30) (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Anemia in women 15-49 years (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Overweight in children under 5 years

OutcomesNutritional status
3
%
2000

Stunting in children under 5 years

OutcomesNutritional status
4
%
2000

Wasting in children under 5 years

OutcomesNutritional status
4
%
2000

All Suggested Policies and Actions

We’ve identified the following policies and actions that might address issues with the food system of Singapore.

Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.