Cross-Cutting Issues Governance

V-Dem accountability index



Combines horizontal (across government ministries), vertical (between voters and leaders), and diagonal (between civil society organizations, media, and government) accountability. It is measured by the following questions: 1) To what extent is the ideal of government accountability achieved? 2) Does the state’s population hold government accountable through elections? 3) Are there checks and balances between institutions? 4) Is there oversight by civil society organizations and media activity?


Governments that demonstrate higher levels of general accountability are more likely to allow for citizen/legislative oversight of food system commitments and spending.