Indicators

Average threats soil biodiversity

DriversEnvironment and climate change
1.1
1 = low risk, 8 = highest risk
2010

Total greenhouse gas emissions (excluding land-use change and forestry) (mtCO₂e)

DriversEnvironment and climate change
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Gini index

DriversIncome growth and distribution
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Annual population growth (%)

DriversPopulation growth and migration
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Gender inequality index

DriversSocio-cultural Context
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Percent urban population of total population (%)

DriversUrbanization
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Affordability of a healthy diet: Ratio of cost to food expenditures

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
0.3
Ratio
2017

Cost of a healthy diet (PPP dollar/person/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
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Cost of an energy sufficient diet

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
1
2017 PPP dollar/person/day
2017

Cost of legumes, nuts, and seeds relative to the starchy staples in a least-cost healthy diet

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
0.7
Ratio
2017

Cost of nutrient adequacy as a percent of household food expenditure

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
25
%
2011

Cost of nutrient adequacy in local currency units

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
3.9
Local currency
2011

Dietary energy in food supply (kcal/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Share of dietary energy from cereals, roots, and tubers (%)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Share of dietary energy from cereals, roots, and tubers as a likely challenge area for Egypt. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Research and develop alternative proteins sources and share the research in the public domain.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of alternative micronutrient-rich protein sources and reduce appeal of red meat to high red-meat consumers.

Supply of eggs (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of fish (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of fruit (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of meat (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of pulses (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Supply of pulses as a likely challenge area for Egypt. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Deliver agricultural extension programmes, infrastructure and education to support farmers to grow and market nutritious foods.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods to local populations.
Action
(Re)design agricultural development programmes intended to increase food producers’ income to also focus on producing, and accessing markets for, nutritious crops and providing nutrition education.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods to local populations.
Action
Provide women with agricultural assets, training and support to increase agriculture productivity and output, and access to markets to sell nutritious foods.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods to local populations.
Action
Support the production and consumption of nutritious indigenous crops through agrobiodiverse cropping systems, agricultural extension, breeding programmes, subsidies, land tenure rights, regulatory protection, market development and public awareness.
Impact
Increase availability and appeal of nutritious foods to producer households and all other populations.
Action
Deliver (peri-)urban agriculture programmes which provide land and other inputs, support local market development and deliver training and nutrition education.
Impact
Increase availability, access, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods to urban populations.
Action
Provide inputs and training to develop and maintain home gardens along with nutrition education.
Impact
Increase availability, access, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods to populations with access to home gardens (i.e., cultivated plots around or close to people’s homes).
Action
Design trade policies to prioritise the supply of nutritious foods over foods manufactured high in fats, sugars and salt and their ingredient, taking account of the benefits of local and international supply chains in different contexts, the protection smallholder farmers, and the availability of complementary policies.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods and reduce availability and affordability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt and increase to all populations.
Action
Build and improve roads, transportation, storage, cold chain and logistical distribution infrastructure to enable the delivery of safe, perishable nutritious foods to urban and rural markets.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and safety of nutritious foods in markets serving local populations.
Action
Redirect agriculture subsidies from staple crops to increasing production of nutritious foods.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods and reduce availability and affordability of refined staples and ingredients used in manufactured foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.

Supply of vegetables (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Retail value of packaged food sales per capita

Food EnvironmentsProduct properties
141.4
USD/capita
2017

Retail value of ultra-processed food sales per capita

Food EnvironmentsProduct properties
78.6
USD/capita
2017

Modern grocery retailers per 100,000 population

Food EnvironmentsVendor properties
3.8
retailers per 100,000 population
2017

Supermarkets per 100,000 population

Food EnvironmentsVendor properties
0.6
per 100,000 population
2017

Cereal yield (kg/ha)

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
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Share of employment in agriculture (%)

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
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Vegetable yield (mt per ha)

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
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Agricultural infrastructure index

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Cereal losses (%)

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Cereal losses as a likely challenge area for Egypt. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Deliver (peri-)urban agriculture programmes which provide land and other inputs, support local market development and deliver training and nutrition education.
Impact
Increase availability, access, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods to urban populations.
Action
Develop innovative postharvest storage technologies, packaging and processing techniques for nutritious foods to reduce nutrient losses, remove anti-nutrients, prevent contamination and reduce food losses.
Impact
Increase availability, appeal and safety of nutritious foods throughout the year to all populations.
Action
Develop new processed products that extend the shelf life of nutritious foods, make them more convenient for consumers to prepare, and reduce food and nutrient losses.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods throughout the year to all populations.
Action
Build and improve roads, transportation, storage, cold chain and logistical distribution infrastructure to enable the delivery of safe, perishable nutritious foods to urban and rural markets.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and safety of nutritious foods in markets serving local populations.
Action
Maintain and upgrade markets selling nutritious foods to low-income communities and ensure they have access to infrastructure to enhance food safety and reduce foods losses.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability, access and safety of nutritious foods in markets serving low-income populations.
Action
Develop infrastructure to reduce loss and waste of nutritious foods and increase its redistribution.
Impact
Increase availability nutritious foods to low-income and all populations.
Action
Mandate training programmes for food producers and retailers on storage, processing and packaging to reduce spoilage and contamination of nutritious foods.
Impact
Increase availability and safety of nutritious foods to all populations.

Fruit losses (%)

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Pulse losses (%)

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Pulse losses as a likely challenge area for Egypt. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Deliver (peri-)urban agriculture programmes which provide land and other inputs, support local market development and deliver training and nutrition education.
Impact
Increase availability, access, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods to urban populations.
Action
Develop innovative postharvest storage technologies, packaging and processing techniques for nutritious foods to reduce nutrient losses, remove anti-nutrients, prevent contamination and reduce food losses.
Impact
Increase availability, appeal and safety of nutritious foods throughout the year to all populations.
Action
Develop new processed products that extend the shelf life of nutritious foods, make them more convenient for consumers to prepare, and reduce food and nutrient losses.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods throughout the year to all populations.
Action
Build and improve roads, transportation, storage, cold chain and logistical distribution infrastructure to enable the delivery of safe, perishable nutritious foods to urban and rural markets.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and safety of nutritious foods in markets serving local populations.
Action
Maintain and upgrade markets selling nutritious foods to low-income communities and ensure they have access to infrastructure to enhance food safety and reduce foods losses.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability, access and safety of nutritious foods in markets serving low-income populations.
Action
Develop infrastructure to reduce loss and waste of nutritious foods and increase its redistribution.
Impact
Increase availability nutritious foods to low-income and all populations.
Action
Mandate training programmes for food producers and retailers on storage, processing and packaging to reduce spoilage and contamination of nutritious foods.
Impact
Increase availability and safety of nutritious foods to all populations.

Vegetable losses (%)

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Final consumption expenditure per capita (constant 2017 international dollars/capita)

Individual FactorsEconomic
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Adolescents (age 12 - 17 years): Prevalence of at least daily carbonated soft drink consumption

OutcomesDietary intake
55
%
2011

Adolescents (age 12 - 17 years): Prevalence of at least weekly fast food consumption

OutcomesDietary intake
50
%
2011

Adolescents (age 12 - 17 years): Prevalence of less than daily vegetable consumption

OutcomesDietary intake
28
%
2011

Adults (age 25+): Estimated per capita fruit intake (g/day)

OutcomesDietary intake
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Adults (age 25+): Estimated per capita legumes intake (g/day)

OutcomesDietary intake
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Adults (age 25+): Estimated per capita milk intake (g/day)

OutcomesDietary intake
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Adults (age 25+): Estimated per capita nuts and seeds intake (g/day)

OutcomesDietary intake
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Adults (age 25+): Estimated per capita processed meat intake (g/day)

OutcomesDietary intake
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Adults (age 25+): Estimated per capita red meat intake (% energy/day)

OutcomesDietary intake
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Adults (age 25+): Estimated per capita sodium intake (% energy/day)

OutcomesDietary intake
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Adults (age 25+): Estimated per capita sugar sweetened beverages intake (g/day)

OutcomesDietary intake
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Adults (age 25+): Estimated per capita vegetable intake (g/day)

OutcomesDietary intake
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Adults (age 25+): Estimated per capita whole grains intake (g/day)

OutcomesDietary intake
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Agricultural land change during the last 10 years

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
23.7
1000 ha yr-1
2008–2018

Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Agricultural land change during the last 10 years as a likely challenge area for Egypt. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Research and develop alternative proteins sources and share the research in the public domain.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of alternative micronutrient-rich protein sources and reduce appeal of red meat to high red-meat consumers.

Average proportion of natural vegetation embedded in agricultural lands

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
1
%
2015

Average species crop richness

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
1.1
crops per unit of land
2015

Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Average species crop richness as a likely challenge area for Egypt. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Support the production and consumption of nutritious indigenous crops through agrobiodiverse cropping systems, agricultural extension, breeding programmes, subsidies, land tenure rights, regulatory protection, market development and public awareness.
Impact
Increase availability and appeal of nutritious foods to producer households and all other populations.
Action
Research and develop alternative proteins sources and share the research in the public domain.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of alternative micronutrient-rich protein sources and reduce appeal of red meat to high red-meat consumers.

Per capita biodiversity impact of food consumption

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
159.3
sp.yr * 10^12/person
2010

Per capita eutrophication of food consumption

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
17,880
g PO43-eq/capita
2010

Per capita greenhouse gas emissions of food consumption

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
2,580
kg CO2eq./person
2010

Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Per capita greenhouse gas emissions of food consumption as a likely challenge area for Egypt. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Research and develop alternative proteins sources and share the research in the public domain.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of alternative micronutrient-rich protein sources and reduce appeal of red meat to high red-meat consumers.

Per capita water use linked to food consumption

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
586
litre/person
2010

Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Per capita water use linked to food consumption as a likely challenge area for Egypt. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Research and develop alternative proteins sources and share the research in the public domain.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of alternative micronutrient-rich protein sources and reduce appeal of red meat to high red-meat consumers.

Total ecological footprint of consumption per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
1.8
global ha/capita
2019

Total ecological footprint of production per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
1.4
global ha/capita
2019

Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity (%)

OutcomesFood security
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Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity as a likely challenge area for Egypt. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Focus cash transfer, voucher and food delivery programmes on increasing the availability, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods and limiting the appeal of foods high in fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods and reduce the affordability and appeal of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to low-income populations with access to the programmes.

Prevalence of undernourishment (%)

OutcomesFood security
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Infants and children (6-23 months): Minimum diet diversity (%)

OutcomesInfant and young child feeding practices
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Infants and children (6-23 months): Minimum meal frequency

OutcomesInfant and young child feeding practices
56
%
2014

Adult diabetes prevalence (%)

OutcomesNCDs
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Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Adult diabetes prevalence as a likely challenge area for Egypt. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Set mandatory limits on trans fats, sugar, salt/sodium and/or saturated fat in packaged foods.
Impact
Reduce availability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Require nutrition labelling on packages/menus to indicate if foods are high in calories, fats, sugars and/or salt and/or in positive nutrients.
Impact
Reduce appeal and availability of foods high in fat, sugar and salt and increases appeal of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.
Action
Reformulate processed food to reduce fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Reduce availability of fats, sugars and salt in foods already available to all populations.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.

Adult raised blood pressure (systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure >= 140/90 mmHg) (%)

OutcomesNCDs
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Adult obesity (BMI >= 30) (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Adult obesity (BMI >= 30) as a likely challenge area for Egypt. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Set mandatory limits on trans fats, sugar, salt/sodium and/or saturated fat in packaged foods.
Impact
Reduce availability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Require nutrition labelling on packages/menus to indicate if foods are high in calories, fats, sugars and/or salt and/or in positive nutrients.
Impact
Reduce appeal and availability of foods high in fat, sugar and salt and increases appeal of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.
Action
Reformulate processed food to reduce fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Reduce availability of fats, sugars and salt in foods already available to all populations.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.

Anemia in women 15-49 years (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Overweight in children under 5 years (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Overweight in children under 5 years as a likely challenge area for Egypt. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Set mandatory limits on trans fats, sugar, salt/sodium and/or saturated fat in packaged foods.
Impact
Reduce availability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Require nutrition labelling on packages/menus to indicate if foods are high in calories, fats, sugars and/or salt and/or in positive nutrients.
Impact
Reduce appeal and availability of foods high in fat, sugar and salt and increases appeal of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.
Action
Reformulate processed food to reduce fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Reduce availability of fats, sugars and salt in foods already available to all populations.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Implement comprehensive school food programmes, incorporating food and meals, nutrition standards, nutrition education, school gardens, food personnel training, food skills and literacy.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and access of nutritious foods and reduce access to foods high in fats, sugars and salt to school-aged children.

Stunting in children under 5 years (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Stunting in children under 5 years as a likely challenge area for Egypt. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Focus cash transfer, voucher and food delivery programmes on increasing the availability, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods and limiting the appeal of foods high in fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods and reduce the affordability and appeal of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to low-income populations with access to the programmes.
Action
Implement comprehensive school food programmes, incorporating food and meals, nutrition standards, nutrition education, school gardens, food personnel training, food skills and literacy.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and access of nutritious foods and reduce access to foods high in fats, sugars and salt to school-aged children.

Wasting in children under 5 years (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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All Suggested Policies and Actions

We’ve identified the following policies and actions that might address issues with the food system of Egypt.

Action
Research and develop alternative proteins sources and share the research in the public domain.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of alternative micronutrient-rich protein sources and reduce appeal of red meat to high red-meat consumers.
Action
Deliver agricultural extension programmes, infrastructure and education to support farmers to grow and market nutritious foods.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods to local populations.
Action
(Re)design agricultural development programmes intended to increase food producers’ income to also focus on producing, and accessing markets for, nutritious crops and providing nutrition education.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods to local populations.
Action
Provide women with agricultural assets, training and support to increase agriculture productivity and output, and access to markets to sell nutritious foods.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods to local populations.
Action
Support the production and consumption of nutritious indigenous crops through agrobiodiverse cropping systems, agricultural extension, breeding programmes, subsidies, land tenure rights, regulatory protection, market development and public awareness.
Impact
Increase availability and appeal of nutritious foods to producer households and all other populations.
Action
Deliver (peri-)urban agriculture programmes which provide land and other inputs, support local market development and deliver training and nutrition education.
Impact
Increase availability, access, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods to urban populations.
Action
Provide inputs and training to develop and maintain home gardens along with nutrition education.
Impact
Increase availability, access, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods to populations with access to home gardens (i.e., cultivated plots around or close to people’s homes).
Action
Design trade policies to prioritise the supply of nutritious foods over foods manufactured high in fats, sugars and salt and their ingredient, taking account of the benefits of local and international supply chains in different contexts, the protection smallholder farmers, and the availability of complementary policies.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods and reduce availability and affordability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt and increase to all populations.
Action
Build and improve roads, transportation, storage, cold chain and logistical distribution infrastructure to enable the delivery of safe, perishable nutritious foods to urban and rural markets.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and safety of nutritious foods in markets serving local populations.
Action
Redirect agriculture subsidies from staple crops to increasing production of nutritious foods.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods and reduce availability and affordability of refined staples and ingredients used in manufactured foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Develop innovative postharvest storage technologies, packaging and processing techniques for nutritious foods to reduce nutrient losses, remove anti-nutrients, prevent contamination and reduce food losses.
Impact
Increase availability, appeal and safety of nutritious foods throughout the year to all populations.
Action
Develop new processed products that extend the shelf life of nutritious foods, make them more convenient for consumers to prepare, and reduce food and nutrient losses.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods throughout the year to all populations.
Action
Maintain and upgrade markets selling nutritious foods to low-income communities and ensure they have access to infrastructure to enhance food safety and reduce foods losses.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability, access and safety of nutritious foods in markets serving low-income populations.
Action
Develop infrastructure to reduce loss and waste of nutritious foods and increase its redistribution.
Impact
Increase availability nutritious foods to low-income and all populations.
Action
Mandate training programmes for food producers and retailers on storage, processing and packaging to reduce spoilage and contamination of nutritious foods.
Impact
Increase availability and safety of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Focus cash transfer, voucher and food delivery programmes on increasing the availability, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods and limiting the appeal of foods high in fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods and reduce the affordability and appeal of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to low-income populations with access to the programmes.
Action
Set mandatory limits on trans fats, sugar, salt/sodium and/or saturated fat in packaged foods.
Impact
Reduce availability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Require nutrition labelling on packages/menus to indicate if foods are high in calories, fats, sugars and/or salt and/or in positive nutrients.
Impact
Reduce appeal and availability of foods high in fat, sugar and salt and increases appeal of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.
Action
Reformulate processed food to reduce fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Reduce availability of fats, sugars and salt in foods already available to all populations.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Implement comprehensive school food programmes, incorporating food and meals, nutrition standards, nutrition education, school gardens, food personnel training, food skills and literacy.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and access of nutritious foods and reduce access to foods high in fats, sugars and salt to school-aged children.