Diagnose

Assessing Food Systems Performance
Food Supply Chains
Production systems and input supply
Storage and distribution
Unlikely Challenge Area
Potential Challenge Area
Likely Challenge Area
Missing Data

Indicators

Drivers


Total greenhouse gas emissions excluding land-use change and forestry (mtCO₂eq)

DriversEnvironment and climate change
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Gini index

DriversIncome growth and distribution
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Urban population as percent of total population (%)

DriversUrbanization
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Annual population growth (%)

DriversPopulation growth and migration
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Gender inequality index

DriversSocio-cultural Context
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Food Supply Chains


Share of employment in agriculture (%)

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
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Average crop species richness

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
14.9
crops/ha
2015

Cereal yield (tonnes/ha)

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
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Vegetable yield (tonnes/ha)

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
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Agricultural infrastructure index

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Cereal losses (%)

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Fruit losses (%)

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Vegetable losses (%)

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Pulse losses (%)

Food Supply ChainsStorage and distribution
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Food Environments


Dietary energy in the food supply (kcal/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Share of dietary energy from cereals, roots, and tubers (%)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of fruit (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of vegetables (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of pulses (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of eggs (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of meat (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Supply of fish (g/capita/day)

Food EnvironmentsFood availability
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Cost of an energy sufficient diet

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
0.3
2017 PPP dollar/capita/day
2017

Affordability of a nutrient adequate diet: ratio of cost to food expenditures

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
21
%
2011

Cost of a healthy diet relative to the cost of sufficient energy from starchy staples

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
9.3
2017

Affordability of a healthy diet: ratio of cost to food expenditures

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
0.3
2017

Percent of the population unable to afford a healthy diet (%)

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
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Cost of legumes, nuts, and seeds relative to the starchy staples in a least-cost healthy diet

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
1.2
2017

Cost of fruits and vegetables relative to starchy staples in a least cost healthy diet

Food EnvironmentsFood affordability
7.1
2017

Retail value (total sales) of packaged food sales per person (USD/capita)

Food EnvironmentsProduct properties
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Retail value (total sales) of ultra-processed foods per person (current (nominal) US$/ capita/year)

Food EnvironmentsProduct properties
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Number of supermarkets per 100,000 population

Food EnvironmentsVendor properties
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Number of modern grocery retailers per 100,000 population

Food EnvironmentsVendor properties
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Individual Factors


Final consumption expenditure per capita (constant 2017 international dollars/capita)

Individual FactorsEconomic
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Outcomes


Total ecological footprint of food production per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
2.6
global ha/capita
2019

Total ecological footprint of food consumption per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
4.4
global ha/capita
2019

Greenhouse gas emissions of food consumption per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
3,098
kg CO2eq/capita
2010

Biodiversity impact of food consumption per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
841.2
sp. yr * 10^12/capita
2010

Water use linked to food consumption per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
437
litre/capita
2010

Eutrophication of food consumption per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
13,020
g PO43eq/capita
2010

Agricultural land change during the last 10 years (1000 ha/year)

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
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Average proportion of natural vegetation embedded in agricultural lands

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
8
%
2015

Soil biodiversity threats index

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
2.6
2010

Prevalence of undernourishment (%)

OutcomesFood security
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Percent of the population experiencing moderate or severe food insecurity (%)

OutcomesFood security
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Adult obesity (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Underweight in Women (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Anemia in women (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Adult diabetes prevalence (%)

OutcomesNoncommunicable diseases
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Adult raised blood pressure (%)

OutcomesNoncommunicable diseases
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All Suggested Policies and Actions

We’ve identified the following policies and actions that might address issues with the food system of Italy.

Action
Deliver (peri-)urban agriculture programmes which provide land and other inputs, support local market development and deliver training and nutrition education.
Impact
Increase availability, access, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods to urban populations.
Action
Develop innovative postharvest storage technologies, packaging and processing techniques for nutritious foods to reduce nutrient losses, remove anti-nutrients, prevent contamination and reduce food losses.
Impact
Increase availability, appeal and safety of nutritious foods throughout the year to all populations.
Action
Develop new processed products that extend the shelf life of nutritious foods, make them more convenient for consumers to prepare, and reduce food and nutrient losses.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods throughout the year to all populations.
Action
Build and improve roads, transportation, storage, cold chain and logistical distribution infrastructure to enable the delivery of safe, perishable nutritious foods to urban and rural markets.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and safety of nutritious foods in markets serving local populations.
Action
Maintain and upgrade markets selling nutritious foods to low-income communities and ensure they have access to infrastructure to enhance food safety and reduce foods losses.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability, access and safety of nutritious foods in markets serving low-income populations.
Action
Develop infrastructure to reduce loss and waste of nutritious foods and increase its redistribution.
Impact
Increase availability nutritious foods to low-income and all populations.
Action
Mandate training programmes for food producers and retailers on storage, processing and packaging to reduce spoilage and contamination of nutritious foods.
Impact
Increase availability and safety of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Deliver agricultural extension programmes, infrastructure and education to support farmers to grow and market nutritious foods.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods to local populations.
Action
(Re)design agricultural development programmes intended to increase food producers’ income to also focus on producing, and accessing markets for, nutritious crops and providing nutrition education.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods to local populations.
Action
Provide women with agricultural assets, training and support to increase agriculture productivity and output, and access to markets to sell nutritious foods.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods to local populations.
Action
Support the production and consumption of nutritious indigenous crops through agrobiodiverse cropping systems, agricultural extension, breeding programmes, subsidies, land tenure rights, regulatory protection, market development and public awareness.
Impact
Increase availability and appeal of nutritious foods to producer households and all other populations.
Action
Provide inputs and training to develop and maintain home gardens along with nutrition education.
Impact
Increase availability, access, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods to populations with access to home gardens (i.e., cultivated plots around or close to people’s homes).
Action
Design trade policies to prioritise the supply of nutritious foods over foods manufactured high in fats, sugars and salt and their ingredient, taking account of the benefits of local and international supply chains in different contexts, the protection smallholder farmers, and the availability of complementary policies.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods and reduce availability and affordability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt and increase to all populations.
Action
Redirect agriculture subsidies from staple crops to increasing production of nutritious foods.
Impact
Increase availability and affordability of nutritious foods and reduce availability and affordability of refined staples and ingredients used in manufactured foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.
Action
Research and develop alternative proteins sources and share the research in the public domain.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of alternative micronutrient-rich protein sources and reduce appeal of red meat to high red-meat consumers.