Marshall Islands

Diagnose

Assessing Food Systems Performance
Food Supply Chains
Production systems and input supply
Storage and distribution
Cereal losses
Fruit losses
Vegetable losses
Pulse losses
Food Environments
Food availability
Dietary energy in the food supply
Share of dietary energy from cereals, roots, and tubers
Supply of fruit
Supply of vegetables
Supply of pulses
Food affordability
Cost of an energy sufficient diet
Cost of a healthy diet relative to the cost of sufficient energy from starchy staples
Affordability of a healthy diet: ratio of cost to food expenditures
Percent of the population unable to afford a healthy diet
Cost of legumes, nuts, and seeds relative to the starchy staples in a least-cost healthy diet
Cost of fruits and vegetables relative to starchy staples in a least cost healthy diet
Product properties
Retail value (total sales) of ultra-processed foods per person
Outcomes
Environmental impacts
Total ecological footprint of food production per person
Total ecological footprint of food consumption per person
Greenhouse gas emissions of food consumption per person
Biodiversity impact of food consumption per person
Water use linked to food consumption per person
Eutrophication of food consumption per person
Soil biodiversity threats index
Food security
Prevalence of undernourishment
Percent of the population experiencing moderate or severe food insecurity
Infant and young child feeding practices
Nutritional status
Noncommunicable diseases
Unlikely Challenge Area
Potential Challenge Area
Likely Challenge Area
Missing Data

Indicators

Drivers


Total greenhouse gas emissions excluding land-use change and forestry (mtCO₂eq)

DriversEnvironment and climate change
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Gini index

DriversIncome growth and distribution
35.5
2019

Urban population as percent of total population (%)

DriversUrbanization
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Annual population growth (%)

DriversPopulation growth and migration
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Food Supply Chains


Average crop species richness

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
1
crops/ha
2015

Food Environments


Individual Factors


Outcomes


Agricultural land change during the last 10 years (1000 ha/year)

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
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Average proportion of natural vegetation embedded in agricultural lands

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
0
%
2015

Children (6-23 months): Minimum meal frequency

OutcomesInfant and young child feeding practices
50
%
2017

Children (6-23 months): Minimum dietary diversity

OutcomesInfant and young child feeding practices
34
%
2017

Children (6-23 months): Zero fruit or vegetable consumption

OutcomesInfant and young child feeding practices
46
% population 6-23 months
2017

Children (6-23 months): Zero meat, fish, or egg consumption

OutcomesInfant and young child feeding practices
35
%
2017

Adult obesity (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Wasting in children under 5 years

OutcomesNutritional status
4
%
2017

Stunting in children under 5 years

OutcomesNutritional status
35
%
2017

Overweight and obesity in children under 5 years

OutcomesNutritional status
4
%
2017

Underweight in Women (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Anemia in women (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Adult diabetes prevalence (%)

OutcomesNoncommunicable diseases
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Adult raised blood pressure (%)

OutcomesNoncommunicable diseases
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All Suggested Policies and Actions

We’ve identified the following policies and actions that might address issues with the food system of Marshall Islands.

Action
Support the production and consumption of nutritious indigenous crops through agrobiodiverse cropping systems, agricultural extension, breeding programmes, subsidies, land tenure rights, regulatory protection, market development and public awareness.
Impact
Increase availability and appeal of nutritious foods to producer households and all other populations.
Action
Research and develop alternative proteins sources and share the research in the public domain.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of alternative micronutrient-rich protein sources and reduce appeal of red meat to high red-meat consumers.
Action
Reformulate processed food to reduce fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Reduce availability of fats, sugars and salt in foods already available to all populations.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Set mandatory limits on trans fats, sugar, salt/sodium and/or saturated fat in packaged foods.
Impact
Reduce availability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Require nutrition labelling on packages/menus to indicate if foods are high in calories, fats, sugars and/or salt and/or in positive nutrients.
Impact
Reduce appeal and availability of foods high in fat, sugar and salt and increases appeal of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.
Action
Focus cash transfer, voucher and food delivery programmes on increasing the availability, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods and limiting the appeal of foods high in fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and appeal of nutritious foods and reduce the affordability and appeal of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to low-income populations with access to the programmes.
Action
Implement comprehensive school food programmes, incorporating food and meals, nutrition standards, nutrition education, school gardens, food personnel training, food skills and literacy.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and access of nutritious foods and reduce access to foods high in fats, sugars and salt to school-aged children.