Assessing Food Systems Performance
Food Supply Chains
Production systems and input supply
Average crop species richness
Storage and distribution
Cereal losses
Fruit losses
Vegetable losses
Pulse losses
Food Environments
Food availability
Dietary energy in the food supply
Share of dietary energy from cereals, roots, and tubers
Supply of fruit
Supply of vegetables
Supply of pulses
Food affordability
Cost of an energy sufficient diet
Cost of a healthy diet relative to the cost of sufficient energy from starchy staples
Affordability of a healthy diet: ratio of cost to food expenditures
Percent of the population who cannot afford a healthy diet
Cost of legumes, nuts, and seeds relative to the starchy staples in a least-cost healthy diet
Cost of fruits and vegetables relative to starchy staples in a least cost healthy diet
Product properties
Retail value (total sales) of ultra-processed foods per capita
Environmental impacts
Total ecological footprint of food production per person
Total ecological footprint of food consumption per person
Greenhouse gas emissions of food consumption per person
Biodiversity impact of food consumption per person
Water use linked to food consumption per person
Eutrophication of food consumption per person
Average proportion of natural vegetation embedded in agricultural lands
Soil biodiversity threats index
Food security
POU: Prevalence of undernourishment
Percent of the population experiencing moderate or severe food insecurity
Infant and young child feeding practices
MDD (IYCF): Minimum dietary diversity for infants and young children
Children (6-23 months): Zero meat, fish, or egg consumption
Nutritional status
Wasting in children under 5 years
Stunting in children under 5 years
Overweight and obesity in children under 5 years
Anemia in women
Noncommunicable diseases
Adult raised blood pressure
Unlikely Challenge Area
Potential Challenge Area
Likely Challenge Area
Missing Data



Total greenhouse gas emissions excluding land-use change and forestry (mtCO₂eq)

DriversEnvironment and climate change

Food Supply Chains

Food Environments

Individual Factors

Cross-Cutting Issues


Agricultural land change during the last 10 years

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
1000 ha/year

Adolescents: Prevalence of less than daily vegetable consumption

OutcomesDietary intake

Adult obesity (%)

OutcomesNutritional status

Underweight in Women (%)

OutcomesNutritional status

Adult diabetes prevalence (%)

OutcomesNoncommunicable diseases

All Suggested Policies and Actions

We’ve identified the following policies and actions that might address issues with the food system of Tokelau.

Reformulate processed food to reduce fats, sugars and salt.
Reduce availability of fats, sugars and salt in foods already available to all populations.
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Set mandatory limits on trans fats, sugar, salt/sodium and/or saturated fat in packaged foods.
Reduce availability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Require nutrition labelling on packages/menus to indicate if foods are high in calories, fats, sugars and/or salt and/or in positive nutrients.
Reduce appeal and availability of foods high in fat, sugar and salt and increases appeal of nutritious foods to all populations.
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.