Diagnose and Decide Scorecard
Food Environments
Affordability of a healthy diet: Ratio of cost to food expenditures
Cost of a healthy diet
Cost of an energy sufficient diet
Cost of legumes, nuts, and seeds relative to the starchy staples in a least-cost healthy diet
Dietary energy in food supply
Share of dietary energy from cereals, roots, and tubers
Supply of fruit
Supply of pulses
Supply of vegetables
Food Supply Chains
Cereal losses
Fruit losses
Pulse losses
Vegetable losses
Unlikely Challenge Area
Potential Challenge Area
Likely Challenge Area
Missing Data

Indicators

Total greenhouse gas emissions (excluding land-use change and forestry) (mtCO₂e)

DriversEnvironment and climate change
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Gini index

DriversIncome growth and distribution
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Population growth (annual) (%)

DriversPopulation growth and migration
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Gender inequality index

DriversSocio-cultural Context
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Percent urban population of total population (%)

DriversUrbanization
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Retail value of packaged food sales per capita

Food EnvironmentsProduct properties
180.4
USD/capita
2017

Retail value of ultra-processed food sales per capita

Food EnvironmentsProduct properties
117.6
USD/capita
2017

Average crop species richness

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
4
crops per unit of land
2015

Share of employment in agriculture (%)

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
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Vegetable yield (Thousand Metric ton)

Food Supply ChainsProduction systems and input supply
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Final consumption expenditure per capita (MZN/Month)

Individual FactorsEconomic
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Adolescents (age 12 - 17 years): Prevalence of at least daily carbonated soft drink consumption

OutcomesDietary intake
56
%
2010

Adolescents (age 12 - 17 years): Prevalence of at least weekly fast food consumption

OutcomesDietary intake
70
%
2010

Adolescents (age 12 - 17 years): Prevalence of less than daily vegetable consumption

OutcomesDietary intake
21
%
2010

Agricultural land change during the last 10 years

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
0.4
1000 ha yr-1
2008–2018

Average proportion of natural vegetation embedded in agricultural lands

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
20
%
2015

Average threats soil biodiversity

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
1.2
1 = low risk, 8 = highest risk
2010

Total ecological footprint of consumption per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
3.4
global ha/capita
2019

Total ecological footprint of production per person

OutcomesEnvironmental impacts
1.7
global ha/capita
2019

Prevalence of moderate or severe food insecurity (%)

OutcomesFood security
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Infants and children (6 - 23 months): Minimum diet diversity (MDD)

OutcomesInfant and young child feeding practices
54
%
2019

Infants and children (6 - 23 months): Minimum meal frequency (MMF)

OutcomesInfant and young child feeding practices
49
%
2019

Adult diabetes prevalence (%)

OutcomesNoncommunicable diseases
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Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Adult diabetes prevalence as a likely challenge area for Tonga. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Reformulate processed food to reduce fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Reduce availability of fats, sugars and salt in foods already available to all populations.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Set mandatory limits on trans fats, sugar, salt/sodium and/or saturated fat in packaged foods.
Impact
Reduce availability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Require nutrition labelling on packages/menus to indicate if foods are high in calories, fats, sugars and/or salt and/or in positive nutrients.
Impact
Reduce appeal and availability of foods high in fat, sugar and salt and increases appeal of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.

Adult raised blood pressure (systolic and/or diastolic blood pressure >= 140/90 mmHg) (%)

OutcomesNoncommunicable diseases
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Adult obesity (BMI >= 30) (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Adult obesity (BMI >= 30) as a likely challenge area for Tonga. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Reformulate processed food to reduce fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Reduce availability of fats, sugars and salt in foods already available to all populations.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Set mandatory limits on trans fats, sugar, salt/sodium and/or saturated fat in packaged foods.
Impact
Reduce availability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Require nutrition labelling on packages/menus to indicate if foods are high in calories, fats, sugars and/or salt and/or in positive nutrients.
Impact
Reduce appeal and availability of foods high in fat, sugar and salt and increases appeal of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.

Anemia in women 15-49 years (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Overweight in children under 5 years (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Recommended Policies and Actions

We’ve identified Overweight in children under 5 years as a likely challenge area for Tonga. The following policies and actions are recommended to improve this outcome. Read about our methodology for identifying these action and policy suggestions.
Action
Reformulate processed food to reduce fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Reduce availability of fats, sugars and salt in foods already available to all populations.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Implement comprehensive school food programmes, incorporating food and meals, nutrition standards, nutrition education, school gardens, food personnel training, food skills and literacy.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and access of nutritious foods and reduce access to foods high in fats, sugars and salt to school-aged children.
Action
Set mandatory limits on trans fats, sugar, salt/sodium and/or saturated fat in packaged foods.
Impact
Reduce availability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Require nutrition labelling on packages/menus to indicate if foods are high in calories, fats, sugars and/or salt and/or in positive nutrients.
Impact
Reduce appeal and availability of foods high in fat, sugar and salt and increases appeal of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.

Stunting in children under 5 years (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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Wasting in children under 5 years (%)

OutcomesNutritional status
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All Suggested Policies and Actions

We’ve identified the following policies and actions that might address issues with the food system of Tonga.

Action
Reformulate processed food to reduce fats, sugars and salt.
Impact
Reduce availability of fats, sugars and salt in foods already available to all populations.
Action
Implement taxes to decrease affordability and incentivise reformulation of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt food.
Impact
Decrease affordability of sugary drinks and foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Set mandatory limits on trans fats, sugar, salt/sodium and/or saturated fat in packaged foods.
Impact
Reduce availability of foods high in fats, sugars and salt to all populations.
Action
Require nutrition labelling on packages/menus to indicate if foods are high in calories, fats, sugars and/or salt and/or in positive nutrients.
Impact
Reduce appeal and availability of foods high in fat, sugar and salt and increases appeal of nutritious foods to all populations.
Action
Restrict all forms of marketing, advertising and in-store promotions of HFSS foods, particularly to children.
Impact
Reduce appeal foods high in fat, sugar and salt to children.
Action
Implement comprehensive school food programmes, incorporating food and meals, nutrition standards, nutrition education, school gardens, food personnel training, food skills and literacy.
Impact
Increase availability, affordability and access of nutritious foods and reduce access to foods high in fats, sugars and salt to school-aged children.